Balance of Payments Case Study: Germany

Germany’s balance of payments (BoP) position is strong in comparison to its counterparts. In January 2022, the country’s central bank reported a $12 billion current account surplus (Deutsche Bundesbank, 2022). This statistic reflected a modest decrease from the previous month’s surplus. The situation is reminiscent to the country’s BoP status throughout the last decade. Germany maintained a surplus of 7% of GDP or more for consecutive reporting periods between 2014 and 2020 (Clemens et al., 2021). This strong position is the result of the convergence of various factors. Get . The primary drivers include a solid export-oriented economy, prudent spending on wages and consumer goods, and business savings (Clemens et al., 2021). Germany’s top-quality exports generate high earnings. The undervalued euro also helps the nation’s exports compete more effectively. The country’s households and corporations maintain significant savings. These factors contribute to Germany’s ability to sustain current account surpluses.

While a current account surplus demonstrates a country’s sound financial condition, it presents a dilemma from an investment perspective. With a current account surplus, Germany is able to finance national expenditure and investment without the need for high-interest borrowing. On the negative side, a large trade surplus signals restrained spending. Clemens et al (2021) hypothesized that Germany’s increased current account surplus following the emergence of COVID-19 was principally the result of reduced investment and increased savings. The country can reduce its trade surplus by fostering an investment-friendly business environment. Such a strategy would incentivize corporations to raise their investments and cut savings.


Clemens, M., Junker, S., & Pagenhardt, L. (2021). German economy only slowly emerging from the pandemic. DIW Weekly Report, 11(37), 276-280.

Deutsche Bundesbank. (2022, March 15). Balance of payments.  

1) summarize the argument or claim the author makes 2) evaluate what they say what are the strengths of the argument, and what are any potential weaknesses 3) offer your own example of an artist or performer you feel embodies or illustrates the points that author makes in the work (apply the concepts in the reading to your example). Each response should be a minimum of 3 pages double spaced, assignment encourages you to reflect deeply and consistently on how performance awakens your critical mind, how it challenges you, and how it can serve as a vehicle for social change.

Present a comparative analysis on narcissistic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Write a thoughtful, separate, concluding paragraph at the end of your work— Please begin your conclusions with, “In conclusion.” Please do not forget to cite your sources. When composing a comparative analysis, be sure to use sentences and phrases that actually compare and contrast the terms.

Identify the fallacy of ambiguity committed in each of the following arguments and mention the Name of the fallacy committed in each sentence: 1. I have no regrets for what I did. God told me to kill your children. Psalm 137 clearly says, “Happy is he who shall seize your children and dash them against the rock”. 2. Our town hall says it is giving out parking permits to fish at Warden’s pond. But that’s ridiculous. Why would a fish need a parking permit? 3. Stanford is academically one of the best universities in the United States. Therefore, Claude, who is a student at Standford, is academically one of the best students in the country. 4. The Declaration of Independence states that all men are created equal. But that’s not certainly the case. Studies show that people are born unequal in intelligence and athletic ability. 5. Both sodium (Na) and chloride (Ca) are dangerous to humans. Therefore, table salt (NaCl), which is a combination of these two chemicals, is dangerous and should be avoided altogether.

Your mission for this assignment is to use the concepts you learned in Hutter and apply them to a city of your choice. You have already chosen two outside sources on a city of your choice and written an annotated bibliography and work draft. I hope this has helped in prepping for this part of the course and gaining confidence in your research and writing abilities. **Please note that unfortunately, no late work will be accepted and minimal comments given aside from the rubric totals, except by advance request.

Sources for this : You have already searched for and gained feedback on your analysis of 3 sociological articles about cities. Please use the comments from your early drafts to either select different articles or enhance your summaries of the ones you have chosen. For the final work, you can also use 3 websites to search for new information or enhance what you have found. Guidelines for web sources on BBD.

Instructions Outbreak Investigation On February 7, 2018, a nurse employed at the Flinn Corporation noticed an increase in the number of employees who were sick. She was concerned that there may be a Salmonella outbreak at the company. She has interviewed each of the employees at the corporation. She has taken samples and sent them out for testing but has not received the results. She asks you, the local epidemiologist, to investigate to see if an outbreak exists and if so what the source of the outbreak is. You follow the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s steps in outbreak investigation ( and report your findings to her. Please note that we will not address all outbreak investigation steps in this assignment. Use the attached Excel worksheet to produce graphs and statistics to answer the questions below. Submit your report as a Word doc and include figures and tables you generate. The report should be easy to follow and interpret and should be written as an academic work in proper APA formatting. Please see the grading rubric for additional details on the work, such as the length for the body of the work. 1. Look at the Excel Spreadsheet attached. There are 3 worksheets (see tabs on bottom of page – “Nurse’s Interview”, “Epi Curve”, “Retrospective Cohort Study”). The first sheet “Nurse’s Interview” has a line list of employees who work at Flinn Corporation. This sheet represents the data the nurse has collected from those employees in an interview. Do you think that an outbreak exists? Why would you recommend to further investigate? Discuss your reasoning. (Step 2: Establish outbreak) 2. Research salmonellosis using academic sources. Are the symptoms that the ill employees exhibit consistent with salmonellosis? Provide a brief summary (1-2 paragraphs) of the disease and discuss the chain of infection for this disease. Use in-text citations in proper APA format and include all sources in your reference section. (Step 3: Verify diagnosis) 3. Identify the percentage of ill employees with each symptom. For example, 1 out of 12 ill employees had blood in stool (Bs) = 8.3%. (Step 4: Working case definition) 4. Conduct descriptive epidemiology (Step 6). Describe the characteristics of the ill employees to determine trends and risk factors. a. Person – Calculate the percentage of ill employees that are male/female. Determine the mean age of the ill employees. b. Place – What percentage of ill employees ate at the cafeteria? What percentage of well employees ate at the cafeteria? c. Time – Using the data collected in the Nurse’s Interview, fill in the column “# of cases” in the “Epi Curve” worksheet. Use 0 if there are no cases. As you fill in the data, the graph will automatically generate. Choose an appropriate title for the graph. Copy and paste graph into your report. What type of epidemic curve is it ? (Hint: read 5. Based on the information you have gathered, you have developed an hypothesis that there is a food being served at the cafeteria that is causing the employees to become ill. You need to further test this hypothesis by conducting a retrospective cohort study (Step 8). Use the worksheet “Retrospective Cohort Study” to calculate attack rates and risk ratios. The first food item Baked Chicken is done for you. You can also consult  for help. Report the Risk ratio for each food item. Based on risk ratios, which is food is most likely to be the source of the illness? Explain. 6. Based on your findings, what would you recommend for prevention and control measures? Apply food safety principles from academic sources to discuss further prevention of Salmonella outbreaks in the cafeteria. (Step 11) Use in-text citations and include sources in reference section. 7. Include a properly formatted reference section in APA format that includes at least 3 academic sources (popular sources should not be used).

Develop a company and determine what it will produce and sell. The requirement for this company is that it be a high-end, special-order type of manufactured product. Complete the following in a Word document of 1,000 words: Develop a list of inputs along with their associated costs, such as labor, materials, and overhead. You can research this information, make it up, or do a combination of both. Be specific as to costs. You are to determine the selling price. Show your calculations, and discuss why you have determined this to be a good sale price. How many items of your product will you need to produce to meet this sale price? How did you calculate this? Determine which of the costing systems discussed in this class will work best for your company. Explain why. Explain why those not chosen were not a good fit for your company. You must explain “why not chosen” for a minimum of 3 costing methods. See  

Within the Discussion Board area, write 300500 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas. For this Discussion Board, please complete the following: A well-balanced marketing strategy for your product or service includes advertising and public relations elements, along with digital (social media platforms) and nondigital channels (traditional communication channels). What motivated you to purchase the last non-essential product that you bought? Was the message advertised or publicized through a digital or nondigital communication platform? What communication channels do you respond best to when it comes to the products and services that you buy?

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