Jansson (2018) "policies become effective only as they are implemented" (pg. 460). If the policies are never enacted, they are never fully analyzed or evaluated, thus providing little to no evidence of its effectiveness. Consequently, the policy implantation process is critical to the policy practice and policy advocacy process. In chapter 13, we will review Jansson's (2018) framework for implementing policy in task 7:

· Policy innovations

· The context of implementation

· Oversight organization and staff

· Primary implementing organizations

· Implementing process within specific agencies

· Inter organizational processe

· External pressures on implementers

· The evaluation of policy outcomes

Per Jansson (2018) the policy system process for policy implementation is a useful framework (p. 461):

Because it enables policy advocates to track a policy's implementation from its enactment to its final outcome and to place it in its political, economic, and legal contexts throughout its implementation. It enables them to identify and analyze the action system that is set in operation once a policy innovation is enacted. It enables them to troubleshoot when the implementation process is flawed-and determine the kind of reforms required to secure more effective implementation

Policy innovation, the first element of the framework, requires an extensive review of the contextual factors that influence the policies goals, objectives and available resources. Contextual factors can be ethical, economical, and legal considerations for policy makers and advocates. In the case of the Obama Administration's Affordable Care Act (ACA) the policy was a fully partisan policy, supported by democrats and demoralized they republican politicians. President Obama and Democrats grounded the policy in their ideology that all Americans have a right to affordable healthcare. Republicans, including Obama's predecessor President Trump opposed the ideology presented by democrats, and imposed partisan politics, economic values and legal battles. A central theme of candidate Trump's election campaign was the repeal and replacement of the ACA, also known as Obamacare. Since 2017 Republicans have created opportunities in congress to repeal the ACA, but it failed when a handful of republicans and independents felt that ACA should not be repealed without a viable replacement. The legal battles were partially successful. While the court cases did not successfully repeal ACA, the court did judge in the republicans favor to eliminate the mandate. Eliminating the mandate has had detrimental effects on how ACA's success. Without the mandate there is no penalty for not having healthcare, which may have led to a slight decrease in the number of people registered for healthcare under the ACA. Republicans have also severely cut the budget for advertising the open enrollment for ACA and has done nothing to restrict the ever-increasing cost of premiums. As mentioned in previous weeks, the republican administration's goal, objectives and minimization of resources was intentional in hopes that the ACA, which continues to be popular with most Americans would "self-

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